Industrial heating furnace is a kind of equipment widely used in the metallurgical industry. Its main function is to heat metal materials to a temperature that can be rolled and forged. At present, its application covers many industries such as petroleum, metallurgy, chemical industry and so on.
There are many types of industrial heating ovens, and their structures are also different, which leads to inconsistent working principles. At present, the common types are tubular heating furnaces, vertical heating furnaces, horizontal rotary reactors and so on.
1. Radiation room
It is the main place for heat exchange in the heating furnace, and its heat load accounts for about 70%-80% of the whole furnace. The reaction and cracking processes of the hydrocarbon steam reformer and ethylene cracking furnace are all completed by the radiation chamber. The furnace tube in the radiant chamber transfers heat through flame or high-temperature flue gas, mainly radiant heat, so it is called a radiant tube. It is directly scoured by flame radiation and has a high temperature. Its material must have sufficient high-temperature strength and high-temperature chemical stability.
2. Convection chamber
The convection chamber relies on the high-temperature flue gas discharged from the radiation chamber to conduct convective heat transfer to heat the material. The flue gas flushes the tube wall of the furnace tube at a relatively high speed to carry out effective convective heat transfer, and its heat load accounts for about 20%-30% of the entire furnace. The convection chamber is generally arranged above the radiation chamber, and some are placed on the ground alone. In order to improve the heat transfer effect, nail-head tubes or finned tubes are often used for furnace tubes.
3. Waste heat recovery system
The waste heat recovery system is used to recover the exhaust heat of the heating furnace. There are two types of recovery methods: one is to preheat the combustion air to recover, so that the recovered heat is returned to the furnace again. The other is to use another recovery system to recover heat. The former is called the air preheating method, and the latter is usually called the waste heat boiler method for water recovery.
The function of the burner is to complete the combustion of fuel and provide heat for heat exchange. The burner is composed of fuel nozzle, air distributor and combustion channel. Burners can be divided into oil burners, gas burners and oil-gas combined burners according to the different fuels used. The performance of the burner directly affects the combustion quality and the thermal efficiency of the furnace.
5. Ventilation system
The function of the ventilation system is to lead the combustion air into the burner and lead the waste flue gas out of the furnace. It is divided into two ways: natural ventilation and forced ventilation. The former relies on the suction of the chimney itself, and the latter uses a fan.
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1. First, use the high temperature flame and flue gas generated when the fuel is burned in the furnace as the heat source to heat the medium flowing in the furnace tube to reach the specified process temperature.
2. Next, the fuel is ejected from the burner and burned to produce high-temperature flame and high-temperature flue gas. The high-temperature flame transfers heat to the furnace tube in the radiation chamber through radiation, and then to the medium in the furnace tube.
3. Finally, the high-temperature flue gas enters the convection chamber of the heating furnace upward due to the suction force of the chimney or the action of the induced draft fan, and transfers heat to the furnace tube in the convection chamber by convection, and then to the medium in the furnace tube.